Dodecahedral Graph


The dodecahedral graph is the Platonic graph corresponding to the connectivity of the vertices of a dodecahedron, illustrated above in four embeddings. The left embedding shows a stereographic projection of the dodecahedron, the second an orthographic projection, the third is from Read and Wilson (1998, p. 162), and the fourth is derived from LCF notation.

It is the cubic symmetric denoted F_(020)A and is isomorphic to the generalized Petersen graph GP(10,2). It can be described in LCF notation as [10, 7, 4, -4, -7, 10, -4, 7, -7, 4]^2.

The dodecahedral graph is implemented in the Wolfram Language as GraphData["DodecahedralGraph"].

It is distance-regular with intersection array {3,2,1,1,1;1,1,1,2,3} and is also distance-transitive.


It is also a unit-distance graph (Gerbracht 2008), as shown above in a unit-distance embedding.

Finding a Hamiltonian cycle on this graph is known as the icosian game. The dodecahedral graph is not Hamilton-connected and is the only known example of a vertex-transitive Hamiltonian graph (other than cycle graphs C_n) that is not H-*-connected (Stan Wagon, pers. comm., May 20, 2013).

The dodecahedral graph has 20 nodes, 30 edges, vertex connectivity 3, edge connectivity 3, graph diameter 5, graph radius 5, and girth 5. Its has chromatic number 3. Its graph spectrum is Spec(G)=(-sqrt(5))^3(-2)^40^41^5(sqrt(5))^33^1 (Buekenhout and Parker 1998; Cvetkovic et al. 1998, p. 308). Its automorphism group is of order |Aut(G)|=120 (Buekenhout and Parker 1998).


The minimal planar integral embedding of the dodecahedral graph has maximum edge length of 2 (Harborth et al. 1987). It is also graceful (Gardner 1983, pp. 158 and 163-164; Gallian 2018, p. 35) with 784298856 fundamentally different labelings, giving a total number of 2×120×784298856=188231725440 graceful labelings (B. Dobbelaere, pers. comm., Oct. 22, 2020).

The dodecahedral graph can be constructed as the graph expansion of 10P_2 with steps 1 and 2, where P_2 is a path graph (Biggs 1993, p. 119).

The skeleton of the great stellated dodecahedron is isomorphic to the dodecahedral graph.

The line graph of the dodecahedral graph is the icosidodecahedral graph.

The dodecahedral graph has chromatic polynomial


The plots above show the adjacency, incidence, and graph distance matrices for the dodecahedral graph.

The bipartite double graph of the dodecahedral graph is the cubic symmetric graph F_(040)A.

The following table summarizes properties of the dodecahedral graph.

automorphism group order120
characteristic polynomial(x-3)(x-1)^5x^4(x+2)^4(x^2-5)^3
chromatic number3
chromatic polynomialpi(x)
clique number2
determined by spectrumyes
distance-regular graphyes
dual graph nameicosahedral graph
edge chromatic number3
edge connectivity3
edge count30
generalized Petersen indices(10,2)
Hamiltonian cycle count60
Hamiltonian path count?
integral graphno
independence number8
LCF notation[-10,-4,7,-7,4,-10,7,4,-4,-7]^2
line graph?
line graph nameicosidodecahedral graph
perfect matching graphno
polyhedral graphyes
polyhedron embedding namesdodecahedron, great stellated dodecahedron
vertex connectivity3
vertex count20
weakly regular parameters(20,3,0,0,1)

See also

Cubic Symmetric Graph, Cubical Graph, Grünbaum Graphs, Icosahedral Graph, Icosian Game, Octahedral Graph, Platonic Graph, Tetrahedral Graph

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Cite this as:

Weisstein, Eric W. "Dodecahedral Graph." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.

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