A projection of a figure by parallel rays. In such a projection, tangencies are preserved. Parallel lines project to parallel lines. The ratio of lengths of parallel segments is preserved, as is the ratio of areas.
Any triangle can be positioned such that its shadow under an orthogonal projection is equilateral. Also, the triangle medians of a triangle project to the triangle medians of the image triangle. Ellipses project to ellipses, and any ellipse can be projected to form a circle. The center of an ellipse projects to the center of the image ellipse. The triangle centroid of a triangle projects to the triangle centroid of its image. Under an orthogonal transformation, the Steiner inellipse can be transformed into a circle inscribed in an equilateral triangle.
In an orthogonal projection, any vector can be written , so