Toroidal Crossing Number

The toroidal crossing number cr_(1)(G) of a graph G is the minimum number of crossings with which G can be drawn on a torus.

A planar graph has toroidal crossing number 0, and a nonplanar graph with toroidal crossing number 0 is called a toroidal graph. A nonplanar graph with toroidal crossing number 0 has graph genus 1 since it can be embedded on a torus (but not in the plane) with no crossings.

A graph having graph crossing number or rectilinear crossing number less than 2 has toroidal crossing number 0. More generally, a graph that becomes planar after the removal of a single edge (in other words, a graph G with graph skewness mu(G)<2) also has toroidal crossing number 0. However, there exist graphs with cr_(1)(G)=0 all of whose edge-removed subgraphs are nonplanar, so this condition is sufficient but not necessary.

If a graph G on m>1 edges has toroidal crossing number cr_(1)(G)=0, then cr(G)<(e; 2) (Pach and Tóth 2005), where (n; k) denotes the binomial coefficient. Furthermore, if G is a graph on n vertices with maximum vertex degree Delta which has toroidal crossing number cr_(1)(G)=0, then


where c is a positive constant (Pach and Tóth 2005).

The toroidal crossing numbers for a complete graph K_n for n=1, 2, ... are 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 9, 23, 42, 70, 105, 154, 226, 326, ... (OEIS A014543).

The crossing number of K_(3,n) on the torus is given by


(Guy and Jenkyns 1969, Ho 2005). The first values for n=1, 2, ... are therefore 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, ... (OEIS A008724).

The crossing number of K_(4,n) on the torus is given by


(Ho 2009). The first values for n=1, 2, ... are therefore 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36, ... (OEIS A182568). Interestingly, the same result holds for K_(1,3,n), K_(2,2,n), K_(1,1,2,n), and K_(1,1,1,1,n).

The toroidal crossing numbers for a complete bipartite graph K_(m,n) are summarized in the following table.


See also

Graph Crossing Number, Graph Genus, Graph Skewness, Klein Bottle Crossing Number, Nonplanar Graph, Planar Graph, Projective Plane Crossing Number, Rectilinear Crossing Number, Toroidal Graph, Torus

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Toroidal Crossing Number

Cite this as:

Weisstein, Eric W. "Toroidal Crossing Number." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.

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