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Gauss's Circle Problem

Count the number of lattice points inside the boundary of a circle of radius with center at the origin. The exact solution is given by the sum

 (1) (2) (3)

(Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen 1999, p. 39). The first few values for , 1, ... are 1, 5, 13, 29, 49, 81, 113, 149, ... (OEIS A000328).

The series for is intimately connected with the sum of squares function (i.e., the number of representations of by two squares), since

 (4)

(Hardy 1999, p. 67). is also closely connected with the Leibniz series since

 (5)

where is a Lerch transcendent and is a digamma function, so taking the limit gives

 (6)

(Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen 1999, p. 39).

Gauss showed that

 (7)

where

 (8)

(Hardy 1999, p. 67).

The first few values of are 5, 13/4, 29/9, 49/16, 81/25, 113/36, 149/49, 197/64, 253/81, 317/100, 377/121, 49/16, ... (OEIS A000328 and A093837). As can be seen in the plot above, the values of such that are , 3, 4, 6, 11, 16, 21, 36, 52, 53, 86, 101, ... (OEIS A093832).

Writing , the best bounds on are

 (9)

(Huxley 2003). The lower limit 1/2 was obtained independently by Hardy and Landau in 1915. The following table summarizes incremental improvements in the upper limit (updated from Hardy 1999, p. 81).

 approx. citation 1 1.00000 Dirichlet 2/3 0.66667 Voronoi (1903), Sierpiński (1906), van der Corput (1923) 37/56 0.66071 Littlewood and Walfisz (1925) 33/50 0.66000 van der Corput (1922) 27/41 0.65854 van der Corput (1928) 15/23 0.65217 24/37 0.64865 Chen (1963), Kolesnik (1969) 35/54 0.64815 Kolesnik (1982) 278/429 0.64802 Kolesnik 34/53 0.64151 Vinogradov (1935) 7/11 0.63636 Iwaniec and Mozzochi (1988) 46/73 0.63014 Huxley (1993) 131/208 0.62981 Huxley (2003)

The problem has also been extended to conics, ellipsoids (Hardy 1915), and higher dimensions.

Circle Lattice Points, Dirichlet Divisor Problem, Leibniz Series, Schinzel Circle, Sum of Squares Function

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References

Bohr, H. and Cramér, H. "Ellipsoidprobleme." In "Die neuere Entwicklung der analytischen Zahlentheorie." Ch. IIC88 in Enzykl. d. Math. Wiss., Vol. 2, Part 3, Issue 2 II C 8, 823-824, 1922.Chen, J.-R. "The Lattice-Points in a Circle." Sci. Sinica 12, 633-649, 1963.Cilleruello, J. "The Distribution of Lattice Points on Circles." J. Number Th. 43, 198-202, 1993.Graham, S. W. and Kolesnik, G. Van Der Corput's Method of Exponential Sums. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991.Guy, R. K. "Gauß's Lattice Point Problem." §F1 in Unsolved Problems in Number Theory, 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 240-241, 1994.Hardy, G. H. "On the Expression of a Number as the Sum of Two Squares." Quart. J. Math. 46, 263-283, 1915.Hardy, G. H. Ramanujan: Twelve Lectures on Subjects Suggested by His Life and Work, 3rd ed. New York: Chelsea, 1999.Hardy, G. H. and Wright, E. M. An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, 5th ed. 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Gauss's Circle Problem

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Weisstein, Eric W. "Gauss's Circle Problem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. https://mathworld.wolfram.com/GausssCircleProblem.html