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The doublestruck capital letter

**Z**,**Z**, denotes the ring of integers ..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, .... The symbol derives from the German word Zahl, meaning "number" (Dummit and Foote ...Let a

**particle**travel a distance s(t) as a function of time t (here, s can be thought of as the arc length of the curve traced out by the**particle**). The speed (the scalar ...The idea of a velocity vector comes from classical physics. By representing the position and motion of a single

**particle**using vectors, the equations for motion are simpler ...From the point of view of coordinate charts, the notion of tangent space is quite simple. The tangent space consists of all directions, or velocities, a

**particle**can take. In ...In

**particle**physics, a spinor field of order 2s describes a**particle**of spin s, where s is an integer or half-integer. Therefore, a spinor of order 4s contains as much ...Spinor fields describing particles of zero rest mass satisfy the so-called zero rest mass equations. Examples of zero rest mass particles include the neutrino (a fermion) and ...

The zeros of the derivative P^'(

**z**) of a polynomial P(**z**) that are not multiple zeros of P(**z**) are the positions of equilibrium in the field of force due to unit particles ...The symbol tau (the lower case Greek letter tau) has many common uses in mathematics, as summarized in the following table. 1. tau(n) is an alternate notation for the divisor ...

The Schrödinger equation describes the motion of particles in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and was first written down by Erwin Schrödinger. The time-dependent ...

The finite zeros of the derivative r^'(

**z**) of a nonconstant rational function r(**z**) that are not multiple zeros of r(**z**) are the positions of equilibrium in the field of force ......