where
are relatively prime positive integers. Stoneham
(1973) proved that
is -normal whenever is an odd prime and is a primitive root of . This result was extended by Bailey
and Crandall (2003), who showed that is normal for all positive integers and provided only that and are relatively prime.

Bailey, D. H. and Crandall, R. E. "Random Generators and Normal Numbers." Exper. Math.11, 527-546, 2002.Stoneham,
R. "On Absolute -Normality
in the Rational Fractions with Applications to Normal Numbers." Acta Arith.22,
277-286, 1973.