TOPICS

# Graph Strong Product

The graph strong product, also known as the graph AND product or graph normal product, is a graph product variously denoted , (Alon, and Lubetzky 2006), or (Beineke and Wilson 2004, p. 104) defined by the adjacency relations ( and ) or ( and ) or ( and ).

In other words, the graph strong product of two graphs and has vertex set and two distinct vertices and are connected iff they are adjacent or equal in each coordinate, i.e., for , either or , where is the edge set of .

Letting denote the adjacency matrix, the identity matrix, and the vertex count of , the adjacency matrix of the graph strong product of simple graphs and is given by

where denotes the Kronecker product (Hammack et al. 2016).

Graph strong products can be computed in the Wolfram Language using GraphProduct[G1, G2, "Normal"].

The graph strong product is unrelated to the graph theoretic property known as graph strength.

Graph Product, Graph Strength, Shannon Capacity

Portions of this entry contributed by Nicolas Bray

Portions of this entry contributed by Lorenzo Sauras-Altuzarra

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## References

Alon, N. and Lubetzky, E. "The Shannon Capacity of a Graph and the Independence Numbers of Its Powers." IEEE Trans. Inform. Th. 52, 2172-2176, 2006.Beineke, L. W. and Wilson, R. J. (Eds.). Topics in Algebraic Graph Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 104, 2004.Hammack, R.; Imrich, W.; and Klavžar, S. Handbook of Product Graphs, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016.

## Referenced on Wolfram|Alpha

Graph Strong Product

## Cite this as:

Bray, Nicolas; Sauras-Altuzarra, Lorenzo; and Weisstein, Eric W. "Graph Strong Product." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. https://mathworld.wolfram.com/GraphStrongProduct.html