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Informally, a function f is a one-

**way**function if 1. The description of f is publicly known and does not require any secret information for its operation. 2. Given x, it is ...Informally, a function f:{0,1}^(l(n))×{0,1}^n->{0,1}^(m(n)) is a trapdoor one-

**way**function if 1. It is a one-**way**function, and 2. For fixed public key y in {0,1}^(l(n)), ...A function f:{0,1}^(l(n))×{0,1}^n->{0,1}^(m(n)) is a trapdoor one-

**way**hash function if f is a trapdoor one-**way**function and is also a one-**way**hash function, i.e., if, ...A function H that maps an arbitrary length message M to a fixed length message digest MD is a one-

**way**hash function if 1. It is a one-**way**function. 2. Given M and H(M), it is ...According to the novel The Hitchhiker's Guide to the

**Galaxy**(Adams 1997), 42 is the ultimate answer to life, the universe, and everything. Unfortunately, it is left as an ...The Wiener-Araya graph (Wiener and Araya 2009) is the 42-vertex graph illustrated above that was the smallest known example of a planar hypohamiltonian graph, beating the ...

Roman (1984, p. 26) defines "the" binomial identity as the equation p_n(x+y)=sum_(k=0)^n(n; k)p_k(y)p_(n-k)(x). (1) Iff the sequence p_n(x) satisfies this identity for all y ...

Given a Poisson process, the probability of obtaining exactly n successes in N trials is given by the limit of a binomial distribution P_p(n|N)=(N!)/(n!(N-n)!)p^n(1-p)^(N-n). ...

A cryptographic hash function is most commonly one of the following: a one-

**way**hash function, a collision-free hash function, a trapdoor one-**way**hash function, or a function ...A Heegaard splitting of a connected orientable 3-manifold M is any

**way**of expressing M as the union of two (3,1)-handlebodies along their boundaries. The boundary of such a ......