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Let pi_(m,n)(x) denote the number of primes <=x which are congruent to n modulo m (i.e., the modular prime counting function). Then one might expect that ...

Due to nonlinearities in weather processes, a butterfly flapping its wings in Tahiti can, in theory, produce a tornado in Kansas. This strong dependence of outcomes on very ...

A moving average may generate an irregular oscillation even if none exists in the original data.

An optical illusion consisting of a spinnable top marked in black with the pattern shown above. When the wheel is spun (especially slowly), the black broken lines appear as ...

The alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis used in hypothesis testing that is contrary to the null hypothesis. It is usually taken to be that the observations are the ...

In the above illustration, black dots appear to form and vanish at the intersections of the gray horizontal and vertical lines. When focusing attention on a single white dot, ...

Radial line segments whose inward-pointing end produce the illusion of a circle or other figure. The apparent figure has the same color as the background, but appears ...

A null hypothesis is a statistical hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true (usually that observations are the result of chance). ...

Numerical stability refers to how a malformed input affects the execution of an algorithm. In a numerically stable algorithm, errors in the input lessen in significance as ...

The Abel-Plana formula gives an expression for the difference between a discrete sum and the corresponding integral. The formula can be derived from the argument principle ...

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