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# Sum-Product Number

A sum-product number is a number such that the sum of 's digits times the product of 's digit is itself, for example

 (1)

Obviously, such a number must be divisible by its digits as well as the sum of its digits. There are only three sum-product numbers: 1, 135, and 144 (OEIS A038369). This can be demonstrated using the following argument due to D. Wilson.

Let be a -digit sum-product number, and let and be the sum and product of its digits. Because is a -digit number, we have

 (2)

Now, since is a sum-product number, we have , giving

 (3)

The inequality is fulfilled only by , so a sum-product number has at most 84 digits.

This gives

 (4)

Now, since is a product of digits, must be of the form . However, if 10 divides , then it also divides . This means that ends in 0 so the product of its digit is , giving . Hence we need not consider divisible by 10, and can assume is either of the form or . This reduces the search space for sum-product numbers to a tractable size, and allowed Wilson to verify that there are no further sum-product numbers.

The following table summarizes near misses up to , where is the sum and the product of decimal digits of .

 OEIS 0 A038369 1, 135, 144 1 13, 91, 1529 2 2, 32, 418, 3572, 32398, 66818, 1378946, ... 3 219, 6177, 35277, 29859843, ... 4 724, 1628, 5444, 437476, 1889285, 3628795, ... 5 1285, 3187, 12875, 124987, 437467, 1889285, 3628795, ... 6 3, 12, 14, 22, 42, 182, 1356, 1446, 7932, 18438, 25926, 29859834, ... 7 23, 3463, 8633, 58247, 29719879, ... 8 7789816, ... 9 11, 81, 5871, 58329, ...

The smallest values of whose sum-product differs from by 0, 1, 2, ... are 1, 13, 2, 219, 724, 1285, 3, 23, 7789816, ... (OEIS A114457). The first unknown value occurs for , which must be greater than (E. W. Weisstein, Jan. 31, 2006).

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## References

Sloane, N. J. A. Sequences A038369 and A114457 in "The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences."

## Referenced on Wolfram|Alpha

Sum-Product Number

## Cite this as:

Weisstein, Eric W. "Sum-Product Number." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. https://mathworld.wolfram.com/Sum-ProductNumber.html