The parity of an integer is its attribute of being even or odd. Thus, it can be said that 6 and 14 have the
same parity (since both are even), whereas 7 and 12
have opposite parity (since 7 is odd and 12 is even).

A different type of parity of an integer is defined as the sum of the bits in binary representation,
i.e., the digit count , computed modulo 2. So, for example, the number has two 1s in its binary representation
and hence has parity 2 (mod 2), or 0. The parities of the first few integers (starting
with 0) are therefore 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, ... (OEIS A010060),
as summarized in the following table.

Commission on Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board. Informal Deduction in Algebra: Properties of Odd and Even Numbers.
Princeton, NJ, 1959.Gardner, M. "Parity Checks." Ch. 8
in The
Sixth Book of Mathematical Games from Scientific American. Chicago, IL: University
of Chicago Press, pp. 71-78, 1984.Sloane, N. J. A. Sequence
A010060 in "The On-Line Encyclopedia
of Integer Sequences."