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Actuarial

**science**is the study of risk through the use of mathematics, probability, and statistics. A person who performs risk assessment is known as an actuary. Actuaries ...A New Kind of

**Science**is a seminal work on simple programs by Stephen Wolfram. In 1980, Wolfram's studies found unexpected behavior in a collection of simple computer ...The computational paradigm is a term introduced by Wolfram (2002, 2021) to describe the idea of using simple programs rather than mathematical equations (the latter of which ...

Cryptology is the

**science**of making and breaking secure codes. It consists of cryptography, the**science**of making secure codes, and cryptanalysis, the**science**of breaking ...The "mathematical paradigm" is a term that may be applied to the fundamental idea that events in the world can be described by mathematical equations, and that solutions to ...

If A is a class of recursively enumerable sets, then the set of Gödel numbers of functions whose domains belong to A is called its index set. If the index set of A is a ...

The complexity of a process or algorithm is a measure of how difficult it is to perform. The study of the complexity of algorithms is known as complexity theory. In general, ...

A multiway system is a kind of substitution system in which multiple states are permitted at any stage. This accommodates rule systems in which there is more than one ...

As first shown by Meyer and Ritchie (1967), do-loops (which have a fixed iteration limit) are a special case of while-loops. A function that can be implemented using only ...

The term "recursive function" is often used informally to describe any function that is defined with recursion. There are several formal counterparts to this informal ...

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