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**Wieferich**prime is a prime p which is a solution to the congruence equation 2^(p-1)=1 (mod p^2). (1) Note the similarity of this expression to the special case of Fermat's ...A pair of prime numbers (p,q) such that p^(q-1)=1 (mod q^2) and q^(p-1)=1 (mod p^2). The only known examples are (2, 1093), (3, 1006003), (5 , 1645333507), (83, 4871), (911, ...

The Fermat quotient for a number a and a prime base p is defined as q_p(a)=(a^(p-1)-1)/p. (1) If pab, then q_p(ab) = q_p(a)+q_p(b) (2) q_p(p+/-1) = ∓1 (3) (mod p), where the ...

The abc conjecture is a conjecture due to Oesterlé and Masser in 1985. It states that, for any infinitesimal epsilon>0, there exists a constant C_epsilon such that for any ...

The conjecture made by Belgian mathematician Eugène Charles Catalan in 1844 that 8 and 9 (2^3 and 3^2) are the only consecutive powers (excluding 0 and 1). In other words, ...

The quotient W(p)=((p-1)!+1)/p which must be congruent to 0 (mod p) for p to be a Wilson prime. The quotient is an integer only when p=1 (in which case W(1)=2) or p is a ...

A Wilson prime is a prime satisfying W(p)=0 (mod p), where W(p) is the Wilson quotient, or equivalently, (p-1)!=-1 (mod p^2). The first few Wilson primes are 5, 13, and 563 ...

In his Meditationes algebraicae, Waring (1770, 1782) proposed a generalization of Lagrange's four-square theorem, stating that every rational integer is the sum of a fixed ...

Fermat's last theorem is a theorem first proposed by Fermat in the form of a note scribbled in the margin of his copy of the ancient Greek text Arithmetica by Diophantus. The ...

A Mersenne number is a number of the form M_n=2^n-1, (1) where n is an integer. The Mersenne numbers consist of all 1s in base-2, and are therefore binary repunits. The first ...

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