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**optical**illusion, illustrated above, in which the eye perceives a white upright equilateral triangle where none is actually drawn.In above figure, which constitutes a modified version of the painting Tirets by Francois Morellet, small circles seem to appear and disappear as the eye is moved over them.

The Freemish crate, also called Escher's cube (Elber) or Hyzer's illusion (Pappas 1989, p. 13), is an impossible figure box that can be drawn but not built. It appears in ...

The impossible fork (Seckel 2002, p. 151), also known as the devil's pitchfork (Singmaster), blivet, or poiuyt, is a classic impossible figure originally due to Schuster ...

The Ouchi illusion, illustrated above, is an illusion named after its inventor, Japanese artist Hajime Ouchi. In this illusion, the central disk seems to float above the ...

An impossible figure in which a stairway in the shape of a square appears to circulate indefinitely while still possessing normal steps (Penrose and Penrose 1958). The Dutch ...

A famous perceptual illusion in which the brain switches between seeing a young girl and an old woman (or "wife" and "mother in law"). An anonymous German postcard from 1888 ...

The maximum flow between vertices v_i and v_j in a graph G is exactly the weight of the smallest set of edges to disconnect G with v_i and v_j in different components (Ford ...

A local source is a node of a directed graph with no entering edges (Borowski and Borwein 1991, p. 401; left figure), and a global source (often simply called a source) is a ...

Let (Omega)_(ij) be the resistance distance matrix of a connected graph G on n nodes. Then Foster's theorems state that sum_((i,j) in E(G)))Omega_(ij)=n-1, where E(g) is the ...

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